A. Jamil, D. Parish, I. Phillips, R. Phan, J. Whitley, G. Oikonomou, "Maximise Unsafe Path Routing Protocol for Forest Fire Monitoring System using Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. 3rd IEEE International Conference on Networked Embedded Systems for Every Application (NESEA 2012), Liverpool, UK, 2012
Wireless Sensor Networks are an emerging technology with wide potential to be used in many applications. One such application is the detection and prevention of disasters in scenarios such as forest fires, floods and earthquakes. In these disaster situations, the events being monitored have the potential to destroy the sensing devices, for example, they can be burnt in a fire, sunk in a flood, melted in volcano lava, short-circuited in harmful chemicals, etc. In this paper, a novel energy-efficient routing protocol called Maximise Unsafe Path (MUP) Routing using IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) is presented. The protocol aims to extend network lifetime by adapting the routes accordingly based on node destruction threat. MUP uses a routing technique that maximises the energy utilisation of nodes that are going to fail sooner, in order to save the energy of the other nodes. MUP is implemented as an extension to the RPL protocol for IPv6-based WSNs. The performance of the presented routing is evaluated with simulations and compared with the standard RPL in the same scenarios.
P. Andriotis, G. Oikonomou, T. Tryfonas, "Forensic Analysis of Wireless Networking Evidence of Android Smartphones", in Proc. IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security (WIFS 12), Tenerife, Spain, pp. 109 - 114, 2012
This paper introduces a method for acquiring forensic-grade evidence from Android smartphones using open source tools. We investigate in particular cases where the suspect has made use of the smartphone's Wi-Fi or Bluetooth interfaces. We discuss the forensic analysis of four case studies, which revealed traces that were left in the inner structure of three mobile Android devices and also indicated security vulnerabilities. Subsequently, we propose a detailed plan for forensic examiners to follow when dealing with investigations of potential crimes committed using the wireless facilities of a suspect Android smartphone. This method can be followed to perform physical acquisition of data without using commercial tools and then to examine them safely in order to discover any activity associated with wireless communications. We evaluate our method using the Association of Chief Police Officers' (ACPO) guidelines of good practice for computer-based, electronic evidence and demonstrate that it is made up of an acceptable host of procedures for mobile forensic analysis, focused specifically on the device's Bluetooth and Wi-Fi facilities.
T. Butt, I. Phillips, L. Guan, G. Oikonomou, "TRENDY: An Adaptive and Context-Aware Service Discovery Protocol for 6LoWPANs", in Proc. Third International Workshop on the Web of Things (WoT 2012), Newcastle, UK, pp. 2:1-2:6, 2012
We propose, TRENDY, a new registry-based Service Discovery protocol with context awareness. It uses CoAP-based RESTful web services to provide a standard interoperable interface which can be easily translated from HTTP. In addition, TRENDY introduces an adaptive timer and grouping mechanism to minimise control overhead and energy consumption. TRENDY's grouping is based on location tags to localise status maintenance traffic and to compose and offer new group based services. Our simulation results show that TRENDY techniques reduce the control traffic considerably and also reduce the energy consumption, while offering the optimal service selection.
W. Rukpakavong, I. Phillips, L. Guan, G. Oikonomou, "RPL Router Discovery for Supporting Energy-Efficient Transmission in Single-hop 6LoWPAN", in Proc. 3rd Workshop On Energy Efficiency in Wireless Networks and Wireless Networks for Energy Efficiency (E2Nets), Ottawa, Canada, pp. 7264-7268, 2012
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), controlling transmission power is a commonly used technique to extend battery life. This paper describes a novel mechanism using measured RSS (Received Signal Strength) to calculate optimal transmission power. This technique works in multipath environments and with nodes with differing transmission capability. Our technique achieves automatic configuration employing modifications to RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-power and lossy networks) router discovery without requiring extra steps or messages. Consequently, each node can send packets with ideal transmission power, which will usually be lower than maximum power and will help to prolong its lifetime. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, using performance metrics such as energy consumption and packet loss, on an WSN testbed. Several factors that impact the RSS, such as antenna, multipath environment, output power and the node's capabilities are also investigated. Moreover, two RSS estimation techniques are evaluated and compared to the average measured RSS. The experimental results show that energy consumption is reduced by using the proposed technique.
V. Michopoulos, L. Guan, G. Oikonomou, I. Phillips, "DCCC6: Duty Cycle-Aware Congestion Control for 6LoWPAN Networks", in Proc. 2012 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), Lugano, Switzerland, pp. 278-283, 2012
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), congestion can cause a number of problems including packet loss, lower throughput and poor energy efficiency. These problems can potentially result in reduced deployment lifetime and under-performing applications. This has led to several proposals for congestion control (CC) mechanisms for sensor networks. Furthermore, the WSN research community has made significant efforts towards power saving MAC protocols with Radio Duty Cycling (RDC). However, careful study of previous work reveals that RDC schemes are often neglected during the design and evaluation of CC algorithms. In this context, this paper contributes a new CC scheme for Duty Cycle and IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks 6LoWPAN sensor Networks - DCCC6. DCCC6 detects the presence of duty cycling and adjust its operation accordingly. We evaluate DCCC6 both with simulations and on a testbed with multi node topologies. The experimental results have shown that DCCC6 achieved higher goodput and lower packet loss than previous works. Moreover, simulations show that DCCC6 maintained low energy consumption, average delay times and achieved a high degree of fairness.
G. Oikonomou, I. Phillips, "Stateless Multicast Forwarding with RPL in 6LoWPAN Sensor Networks", in Proc. 2012 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), Lugano, Switzerland, pp. 272-277, 2012
Recent research efforts have resulted in efficient support for IPv6 in Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN), with the ``IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks'' (RPL) being on the forefront as the state of the art routing approach. However, little attention has been paid to IPv6 multicast for networks of constrained devices. The ``Multicast Forwarding Using Trickle'' (Trickle Multicast) internet draft is one of the most noteworthy efforts, while RPL's specification also attempts to address the area but leaves many questions unanswered. In this paper we expose our concerns about the Trickle Multicast (TM) algorithm, backed up by thorough performance evaluation. We also introduce SMRF, an alternative multicast forwarding mechanism for RPL networks, which addresses TM's drawbacks. Simulation results demonstrate that SMRF achieves significant delay and energy efficiency improvements at the cost of a small increase in packet loss. We have extended the TCP/IP engine of the Contiki embedded Operating System to support both algorithms. Both implementations have been made available to the community.
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