A. Elsts, X. Fafoutis, S. Duquennoy, G. Oikonomou, R. Piechocki, I. Craddock

Abstract:
Networks deployed in real-world conditions have to cope with dynamic, unpredictable environmental temperature changes. These changes affect the clock rate on network nodes, and can cause faster clock de-synchronization compared to situations where devices are operating under stable temperature conditions. Wireless network protocols such as Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard are affected by this problem, since they require tight clock synchronization among all nodes for the network to remain operational. This paper proposes a method for autonomously compensating temperature-dependent clock rate changes. After a calibration stage, nodes continuously perform temperature measurements to compensate for clock drifts at run-time. The method is implemented on low-power IoT nodes and evaluated through experiments in a temperature chamber, indoor and outdoor environments, as well as with numerical simulations. The results show that applying the method reduces the maximum synchronization error more than 10 times. In this way, the method allows reduce the total energy spent for time synchronization, which is practically relevant concern for low data rate, low energy budget TSCH networks, especially those exposed to environments with changing temperature.
Reference:
A. Elsts, X. Fafoutis, S. Duquennoy, G. Oikonomou, R. Piechocki, I. Craddock, "Temperature-Resilient Time Synchronization for the Internet of Things", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, IEEE (in press)
Bibtex Entry:
@article{Elsts-2018-tii,
  title = {Temperature-Resilient Time Synchronization for the Internet of Things},
  author = {Atis Elsts and Xenofon Fafoutis and Simon Duquennoy and George Oikonomou and Robert Piechocki and Ian Craddock},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  note = {in press},
  abstract = {Networks deployed in real-world conditions have to cope with dynamic, unpredictable environmental temperature changes. These changes affect the clock rate on network nodes, and can cause faster clock de-synchronization compared to situations where devices are operating under stable temperature conditions. Wireless network protocols such as Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard are affected by this problem, since they require tight clock synchronization among all nodes for the network to remain operational. This paper proposes a method for autonomously compensating temperature-dependent clock rate changes. After a calibration stage, nodes continuously perform temperature measurements to compensate for clock drifts at run-time. The method is implemented on low-power IoT nodes and evaluated through experiments in a temperature chamber, indoor and outdoor environments, as well as with numerical simulations. The results show that applying the method reduces the maximum synchronization error more than 10 times. In this way, the method allows reduce the total energy spent for time synchronization, which is practically relevant concern for low data rate, low energy budget TSCH networks, especially those exposed to environments with changing temperature.}
}
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Temperature-Resilient Time Synchronization for the Internet of Things