V. Michopoulos, G. Oikonomou, I. Phillips, L. Guan, "CADC: Congestion Aware Duty Cycle Mechanism A Simulation Evaluation", in Proc. 19th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2014
In WSNs idle listening is a major source of energy consumption. Devices can maximise battery, and hence network, lifetime by keeping their radio transceivers off when not needed. We propose CADC, a new Congestion Aware Duty Cycle (DC) MAC protocol, for 6LoWPANs. This protocol uses a new mechanism for the adaptation of the Radio Duty Cycle (RDC), that reacts quickly to changing traffic loads and pat- terns. CADC is independent of network topology, operating protocols and applications and does not require any clock synchronisation between the nodes. Through simulation, we highlight that in static duty cycle MACs there is always a trade-off between energy-efficiency and performance leading to increased energy consumption and low throughput in certain networks. Additionally, it is shown that dynamic protocols can overcome the constraints observed in static DC MACs. CADC outperforms other previously proposed static and dynamic duty cycle protocols in terms of energy consumption, packet loss and goodput while it achieves competitive delay times
V. Michopoulos, L. Guan, G. Oikonomou, I. Phillips, "DCCC6: Duty Cycle-Aware Congestion Control for 6LoWPAN Networks", in Proc. 2012 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), Lugano, Switzerland, pp. 278-283, 2012
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), congestion can cause a number of problems including packet loss, lower throughput and poor energy efficiency. These problems can potentially result in reduced deployment lifetime and under-performing applications. This has led to several proposals for congestion control (CC) mechanisms for sensor networks. Furthermore, the WSN research community has made significant efforts towards power saving MAC protocols with Radio Duty Cycling (RDC). However, careful study of previous work reveals that RDC schemes are often neglected during the design and evaluation of CC algorithms. In this context, this paper contributes a new CC scheme for Duty Cycle and IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks 6LoWPAN sensor Networks - DCCC6. DCCC6 detects the presence of duty cycling and adjust its operation accordingly. We evaluate DCCC6 both with simulations and on a testbed with multi node topologies. The experimental results have shown that DCCC6 achieved higher goodput and lower packet loss than previous works. Moreover, simulations show that DCCC6 maintained low energy consumption, average delay times and achieved a high degree of fairness.
V. Michopoulos, L. Guan, G. Oikonomou, I. Phillips, "A Comparative Study of Congestion Control Algorithms in IPv6 Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. 2011 International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems and Workshops (DCOSS), Barcelona, Spain, pp. 1-6, 2011
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), congestion can cause a plethora of malfunctions such as packet loss, lower throughput and energy inefficiency, potentially resulting in reduced deployment lifetime and under-performing applications. This has led to several proposals describing congestion control (CC) mechanisms for sensor networks. Furthermore, the WSN research community has made significant efforts towards power saving MAC protocols with Radio Duty Cycling (RDC). However, careful study of previous work reveals that RDC schemes are often neglected during the design and evaluation of congestion control algorithms. In this paper, we argue that the presence (or lack) of RDC can drastically influence the performance of congestion detection. In addition, most WSN CC mechanisms are evaluated under traditional sensor network topologies and protocols (e.g. trickle data dissemination, tree data collection). The emerging IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) and related standards pose a new requirement: we now need to investigate if previous findings regarding congestion control are still applicable. In this context, this paper contributes a comprehensive evaluation of existing congestion detection mechanisms in a simulated, multi-node 6LoWPAN sensor network. We present results from two sets of experiments, differentiated by the presence or lack of RDC.
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