P. Cooper, K. Maraslis, T. Tryfonas, G. Oikonomou, "An intelligent hot-desking model harnessing the power of occupancy sensing", Journal of Facilities, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017 (in press)
In this paper a model is developed to harness the power of occupancy sensing in an Intelligent Hot-Desking system utilizing experimental data from a commercial office in central London. To achieve that, the model uses that data as an input in order to undertake the task of allocating the office desks to the employees in a way that will maximise their productivity based on the type of project that each employee is working on each time. In this way, and by taking into account other parameters that are involved as well, the synergy that this situation can create, can increase productivity significantly compared to the situation where employees have their desks fixed under any circumstances and also allow for expenses cut since the desks can now be less than the employees. Not only is this approach able to optimize desk utilization based on quality occupancy data, but also speculates how and by how much overall productivity increases, while proving that its benefits outweigh the costs of adopting such a system. Furthermore, this paper explores the barriers towards Intelligent Hot-Desking, including how an increase in occupancy data collection in the private sector could have key advantages for the business as an organization and the city as a whole. Ultimately, it provides a valuable and feasible use case for the use of occupancy data in smart buildings, a dataset that is perceived to be valuable yet underexplored.
K. Maraslis, P. Cooper, T. Tryfonas, G. Oikonomou, "An intelligent hot-desking model based on occupancy sensor data and its potential for social impact", in Proc. HICSS, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 9860, pp. 142-158, 2016
In this paper we develop a model that utilises occupancy sensor data in a commercial Hot-Desking environment. Hot-Desking (or ‘office-hoteling’) is a method of office resource management that emerged in the nineties hoping to reduce the real estate costs of workplaces, by allowing offices to be used interchangeably among employees. We show that sensor data can be used to facilitate office resources management, in our case desk allocation in a Hot-Desking environment, with results that outweigh the costs of occupancy detection. We are able to optimise desk utilisation based on quality occupancy data and also demonstrate the effectiveness of the model by comparing it to a theoretically ideal, but impractical in real life, model. We then explain how a generalisation of the model that includes input from human sensors (e.g. social media) besides the presence sensing and pre-declared personal preferences, can be used, with potential impact on wider community scale.
P. Cooper, T. Crick, T. Tryfonas, G. Oikonomou, "Whole-Life Environmental Impacts of ICT Use", in Proc. 2015 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2015
In this paper we apply a whole-life assessment approach to estimate the environmental impact of the use of ICT of an individual within the UK over a one-year period. By estimating the energy and data consumption of an average user's use of a typical device, and estimating the associated energy usage (and thus CO2 produced) of each stage in the data chain, we are able to calculate the summed CO2 value for embodied carbon of an average device. Overall, device energy is seen to dominate; within device, desktops dominate, both due to their high energy use for a given task, but also their high standby power, which is the most significant point of behaviour-driven waste. Geographical, behavioural and chronological factors are all evaluated to be highly significant to the impact of a user's ICT use, along with a number of secondary factors. Finally, we present policy recommendations to further the understanding of the factors affecting the environmental impact of ICT, particularly focusing on sustainability, resource efficiency and the social implications of ICT in a low-carbon transformation.
L. Suzuki, P. Cooper, T. Tryfonas, G. Oikonomou, "Hidden Presence: Sensing Occupancy and Extracting Value from Occupancy Data", in Design, User Experience, and Usability: Interactive Experience Design, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 9188, pp. 412-424, 2015
In this paper we review various technical architectures for sensing occupancy in commercial real estate spaces and discuss the potential benefits of applications that could be built upon the collected data. The technical capabilities reviewed range from simple presence detection to identifying individual workers and relating those semantically to jobs, teams, processes or other elements of the business. The volume and richness of accumulated data varies accordingly allowing the development of a range of occupancy monitoring applications that could bring multiple benefits to an organization. We find that overall occupancy-based applications are underappreciated in the Smart Buildings mantra due to occupancy’s inability to align to traditional building engineering silos, a lack of common view between stakeholders with respect to what is ‘value’ and the current client assessment tendencies which use predominantly demonstrator-based logic rather than a combination of practical demonstrators and theoretical value. We demonstrate that in commercial office buildings, occupancy-based Smart Building concepts have the potential to deliver benefits that can be orders of magnitude greater than current practice associated with silos such as energy and lighting. The directness of value in these is far more variable however, and the barriers and enablers to its realization are non-trivial. We identify and discuss these factors (including privacy, perceived additional capital expenditure, retrofitting requirements etc.) in more detail and relate them to stages of design and delivery of the built environment. We conclude that, on the presumption costs of development and implementation are relatively similar, the value streams of occupancy-based systems, while requiring more careful and bespoke design in the short term, could produce greater lifetime value in commercial office scenarios than leading smart building technologies.
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